BR Shetty: The staggering rise and incredible fall of a billionaire

In mid-2018, throughout a media interplay, Bavaguthu Raghuram Shetty remarked: “If I don’t have one problem a day, that’s not a good day for me. I should have a problem, solve it and then feel satisfied.”

One should, because the adage goes, watch out about what one needs for. At the time of the interview, there was not a cloud on the horizon for the Abu Dhabi-based billionaire-founder of NMC Health, then the most important personal healthcare firm within the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its 2012 IPO within the London Stock Exchange — the primary for an Abu Dhabi-based firm — was a blockbuster, elevating £117 million. In 2014, he acquired UK-based foreign exchange main Travelex, paying £1 billion. A sprawl of smaller companies that he owns throughout hospitality, schooling and pharma have been all doing properly. In 2017, he stated he would produce the costliest film ever made in India — a characteristic based mostly on the epic Mahabharata. Budget: Rs 1,000 cr.

BR Shetty embodied the last word immigrant dream within the Persian Gulf — a man from coastal Karnataka who arrived within the oil-rich West Asian deserts within the early Nineteen Seventies with $8 in his pocket and went on to create a private fortune estimated by Forbes to be $4.2 billion in 2018.

Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed al Nahyan, UAE deputy prime minister and proprietor of the Manchester City soccer membership, is the patron of Centurion Investments, as soon as NMC’s prime shareholder. Not solely had Shetty achieved fabulous success, he was additionally paying it ahead. He had signed as much as be half of the Giving Pledge — a marketing campaign by Bill Gates and Warren Buffett — committing to donate to charity at the least half of his private fortune.

And subsequently, when he gave that interview, there was no cause for anybody to suspect that his empire might come crashing down. Least of all, as a result of somebody dealing with the Twitter deal with of a boutique analysis agency in California determined to be a tease.

Chinese Proverb

On August 6, 2019, Muddy Waters teased on Twitter a report on a UK-based funding agency it was going to launch the next day: “Muddy Waters is now in a blackout period until tomorrow 8 am London time when we will announce a new short position on an accounting fiasco that’s potentially insolvent and possibly facing a liquidity crunch. Investors are bulled up about this company, we are not.”



Muddy Waters (named after the Chinese proverb, “Muddy waters make it easy to catch fish”, not the blues singer) is a controversial analysis agency run by short-seller Carson Block, who has made a identify exposing accounting frauds in Chinese public firms. He shot to fame in 2011 when he issued a report accusing Canada-listed Chinese plantation operator Sino Forest of overstating its timber holdings. The inventory tanked 78% in days, and billionaire hedge fund supervisor John Paulson misplaced $110 million. That’s when Wall Street first took word of the brand new child on the block. Short-sellers like him guess on the value of a inventory taking place. Block sometimes takes a quick place on a inventory earlier than releasing a report and makes cash when a inventory will get hammered. The battle of curiosity is clearly declared on its web site. His line of work generates such warmth that he doesn’t disclose his location and has spoken about receiving dying threats.

But on that day in August, when Muddy Waters tweeted that it could launch a report about an accounting fiasco at a London-listed agency, Block seen an attention-grabbing growth: the inventory of NMC Health dropped. “We had tweeted in advance an innocuous comment about our intention to initiate a campaign the next day on an unnamed London listed firm. NMC happened to drop significantly on the tweet. That’s a pretty strong indication that the market knows something isn’t right at the company, so we took a look….” Block advised ET Magazine in an emailed response.

What they discovered was not fairly.


House of Cards

When Muddy Waters launched a damning report 4 months later, on December 17, it set off a chain of occasions that has surprised UAE.

NMC Health, the primary firm Shetty began, stands accused of falsifying accounts and faces costs of fraud. A personal investigation revealed it may need understated its debt by $4.5 billion in 2019. Shetty’s monetary providers agency Finablr, an LSE-listed enterprise that owns the remittance agency UAE Exchange, has found that $100 million price of cheques have been issued from the corporate with out the board’s data. Top executives at each companies have both resigned or been sacked. LSE has suspended buying and selling within the inventory of each the businesses. NMC Health has been positioned in administration. Shetty himself stepped down as director and joint non-executive chairman of NMC Health in February and is now dealing with legal costs in Abu Dhabi allegedly for fraud and forgery.


Trading within the NMC inventory was suspended in London in February. It had fallen by greater than 60% from the degrees that prevailed simply forward of the report (November 26). The American Depositary Receipt — a stock-equivalent instrument traded on Nasdaq — of the inventory has misplaced 98.99% of its worth from November 26.

NMC reportedly owes cash to over 80 monetary establishments. On March 24, NMC Health knowledgeable the LSE that the group’s debt was estimated to be $6.6 billion, comprising “over 75 debt facilities from over 80 financial institutions”. According to court docket filings reported by Bloomberg in April, NMC owes Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank (ADCB) $963 million, Dubai Islamic Bank $541 million, Abu Dhabi Islamic Bank $325 million, Standard Chartered $250 million and Barclays $146 million.

At the age of 77, Shetty finds himself grappling with issues so extreme they threaten to obliterate every part he constructed from scratch over 4 many years, and irreparably besmirch his legacy.




Shetty flew to India in February, a journey he says he undertook to take care of his ailing elder brother, who has since handed away. He advised ET Magazine that he’ll share “very good news” quickly, although not for the time being, and declined to remark additional. (He didn’t reply to a detailed questionnaire despatched by ET Magazine over e mail and WhatsApp.) Previously, he stated in a assertion that he had launched his personal authorized and forensic investigations and would share the outcomes with acceptable authorities. “I am absolutely determined to bring to light the full facts, and the whole truth around what has transpired as soon as possible,” he had stated.

The developments have left many aghast. After all, within the pantheon of Indian expatriate gods within the Gulf area, Shetty was excessive up there. Perhaps nowhere is that this consternation felt extra keenly than in coastal Karnataka, the place he hails from, and for whom he had develop into a image of delight and chance.




The Boy From Kapu

“I’m very surprised and very sorry. He is a very simple man. I’m sure he hasn’t done any golmaal,” says M Mohan Alva, chairman of Alva’s Education Foundation in Dakshina Kannada district, who has identified Shetty for the reason that Nineteen Seventies. Belonging to the Tulu-speaking Bunt group of coastal Karnataka, Shetty grew up in a modest however well-respected farming household in Kapu in Udupi district, alongside three brothers and three sisters.

Like his father earlier than him, Shetty, too, efficiently contested elections to the Udupi Municipal Council in his 20s. While his father was a Congressman and freedom fighter, Shetty contested on a ticket from the Jan Sangh, the predecessor of the Bharatiya Janata Party. Among those that campaigned for the 26-year-old candidate was former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, whereas the Congress was led by Indira Gandhi. “I was a very dynamic boy during those days and… Vajpayee, who was a gifted orator, was moving through our area and I used to drive him in my car,” Shetty advised The Organiser, the RSS mouthpiece, in a 2018 interview. The Jan Sangh trounced the Congress within the election of 1968, successful 12 of 15 seats. When his time period ended, Shetty was elected a second time, and turned vice-president of the council. The ties with the Jan Sangh and then the BJP have endured — Shetty was one of the primary organisers of Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s go to to Abu Dhabi and his show image on WhatsApp is a photograph of himself with the PM.

Back within the Nineteen Seventies, Shetty, who had certified as a pharmacist, had develop into a distributor for a Pune-based pharmaceutical firm in Udupi. But as a result of he spent most of his time in politics, his enterprise suffered. So a lot in order that he needed to take a private mortgage to fund his sister’s wedding ceremony. That mortgage, sanctioned by Syndicate Bank’s then managing director KK Pai, as Shetty has talked about many instances, performed a essential position in his fortunes. With little cash and a debt to repay, Shetty determined that he had no alternative however to search for greener pastures elsewhere. Like many younger males these days, he determined to hunt his fortune within the newly fashioned United Arab Emirates.

Though he left years in the past, Alva says the area continues to be very near his coronary heart, and Shetty and his household make a number of visits a yr. “He is a very simple man. If you call him for a family function here, he will come,” says Alva. Shetty, he says, continues to drop in at outdated haunts like Diana Hotel in Udupi, the place he likes to dig into gadbad, a many-layered icecream town and neighbouring areas are well-known for. When he was on the lookout for a appropriate alliance for his son, Binay, CEO of the holding firm BRS Ventures Investment, he turned to Alva to assist discover a “simple, homely girl” from the area, says Alva. (He obliged, and the marriage happened in Mangaluru in 2017, attended by the then CM Siddaramaiah and a galaxy of leaders.)

Shetty has earned a lot goodwill within the space by recruiting many of its kids to his varied firms. An worker with Shetty’s cash remittance agency UAE Exchange in Abu Dhabi, who requested to not be named, advised ET Magazine on the telephone that for anybody from Mangaluru and Udupi who dreamt of discovering a job in West Asia, Shetty could be the primary port of name.

Opportunities of a Lifetime

While Shetty embraced the trimmings of wealth — he owns a fleet of Rolls-Royces, a personal jet and two entire flooring within the Burj Khalifa — he by no means tried to cover his humble origins. The arc of how a struggling Shetty made it massive is a acquainted one of arduous work, the suitable connections and the knack to identify a chance. “He would talk freely about his humble origins,” says TP Seetharam , India’s ambassador to the UAE between 2013 and 2016, who has met him on a number of events. “He used to enjoy talking about how he achieved his success, and encourage others.”

In his telling, Shetty landed in Abu Dhabi in 1973, with $8 (Rs 56 then) and a bag, which received stolen. Unable to seek out a authorities job since he didn’t communicate Arabic, he hustled his means into a job promoting medicines, changing into what he calls the nation’s first outside medical consultant. Returning from a sizzling, arduous day’s work, Shetty would wash the shirt he was sporting, dry it in a single day and then put on it once more the following day, when he set out with a Samsonite bag full of medicines, which he nonetheless retains as a reminder of troublesome instances. Ever the consummate salesman, he additionally started promoting FMCG for a fee.

His first massive gamble got here in 1975, when he determined to open a personal clinic, although the federal government was providing free healthcare. But Shetty smelt a chance and opened a clinic and a pharmacy in a two-room condominium, calling it New Medical Centre (NMC). The first physician was his spouse, Chandrakumari Shetty. Alva says Shetty by no means shied away from arduous work, even driving the ambulance from time to time. NMC Health has gone on to develop into a healthcare big, using over 2,000 docs throughout 45 hospitals.

His subsequent massive alternative got here 5 years later, impressed by the lengthy queues of migrant employees lining as much as ship a refund residence. In 1980, he launched cash remittance agency UAE Exchange, which charged lower than banks at the moment and grew to develop into a market chief, ultimately increasing to 850 direct branches in 31 nations. Subsidiaries resembling Xpress Money have bigger footprints. Shetty has stated that what set his agency aside was personalised service. It additionally stored up with technological developments, changing into one of the primary to supply SWIFT transactions, enabling the speedy switch of cash throughout borders. The varied finance firms have been later introduced below the umbrella of Finablr.

Then, in 2003, Shetty arrange Neopharma, a pioneering pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprise with a state-of-the-art plant in Abu Dhabi. One of the corporate’s first joint ventures was with Bengaluru-headquartered Biocon, struck in 2007. “When we met, Shetty said why don’t we set up a joint venture in Abu Dhabi, which I thought was a very good idea. So we formed Neobiocon, which has done very well as a joint venture,” says Biocon chairperson Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw. The newest developments and the allegations of fraud, she says, got here as a shock, including that there was no concern about her three way partnership, during which Shetty has the bulk stake. “The financial dealings of our joint venture are very transparent.”

As Shetty’s companies expanded together with the oil growth within the Gulf, his inventory rose significantly within the Indian group and among the many Emirati rulers. He was awarded the Order of Abu Dhabi by the federal government there in 2005, which he’s at all times seen sporting, pinned to his lapel. A Padma Shri in India adopted in 2009. Over the years, Shetty has been growing his enterprise pursuits in India — acquisitions embrace the 180-year-old Assam Company, Mumbai’s Seven Hills Hospital, which was dealing with insolvency proceedings, and hospitals in Kerala and Odisha.

Former ambassador Seetharam says Shetty was one of the folks Indian expatriates turned to for assist. “And he invariably helped. One has known him as a person generous in supporting community causes and many organisations benefited from his largesse.” Shetty, he says, didn’t hesitate to just accept invites to occasions although he knew many of these would translate into requests for assist.

Soorya Krishnamoorthy, founder of the long-running Soorya Festival of arts and tradition, has related anecdotes about Shetty’s generosity. “He has been a patron for the last 30 years. It was his way of supporting the arts,” says Krishnamoorthy, based mostly in Thiruvananthapuram. “While I was heading the Kerala Sangeetha Nataka Akademi, I had launched a Rs 1 lakh insurance plan for artistes in Kerala. What many do not know is that Shetty paid the premium for all the artistes, about 6,000 of them, for the six years that I held the post,” says Krishnamoorthy who, like others who’ve identified Shetty properly, expresses disbelief on the current flip of occasions.

While this gesture may need slipped below the radar, different flamboyant ones have made headlines. Like the time he jumped on stage after a live performance by singer KJ Yesudas and supplied him the keys to his Rolls-Royce, as a result of he was so moved by the efficiency. A couple of different grandiose bulletins have come to naught, like his intent to launch a Rs 450 crore tourism challenge across the Jog falls in his residence state. The greatest of them was maybe his announcement that he would spend Rs 1,000 crore on a movie based mostly on an interpretation of the Mahabharata by author MT Vasudevan Nair. It by no means took off.

The Brothers from Kerala

Shetty was first famous internationally with the 2012 IPO of NMC Health. The firm reported revenues of over $2 billion in 2018. Finablr, the umbrella firm for varied finance firms together with UAE Exchange, additionally listed on the LSE in May 2019, though its success was extra muted. Behind each the IPOs have been two brothers from Palakkad, Kerala, who had risen by means of the ranks to develop into half of Shetty’s internal circle.

At the time of the listings, Prasanth Manghat was CFO of NMC Health whereas youthful brother Promoth Manghat was CEO of UAE Exchange and government director of Finablr. The Manghats joined Shetty’s empire in 2003 and rose to be counted amongst Shetty’s most trusted lieutenants. In 2017, when Shetty stepped down as CEO of NMC Health, Prasanth, then the deputy CEO, was elevated to the position. The businessman had for lengthy employed many individuals from Kerala — over 70% of his workers, he had stated, laughing, in an interview, have been Malayalis. The bond goes again to his early days when the group of Malayalis had supported him, together with folks like MK Abdullah, uncle of LuLu Group founder MA Yusuff Ali.

What Lies Ahead

Events have unfolded quickly at Shetty’s firms following the 2019 Muddy Waters report. While its report focussed on accounting points at NMC with out quantifying them, what has subsequently been revealed may need come as a shock even to Block, who’s accused of suspecting the worst about his goal firms.


As the inventory continued to tank in January 2020 regardless of vehement denials, the corporate appointed Freeh Group, headed by a former FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) director, to analyze the costs. The probe discovered that unknown to the board and the inventory market, the corporate had entered into a $335 million financing association with entities managed by Shetty and one other principal shareholder, Khaleefa Bin Butti. There was additionally confusion about how a lot stake every shareholder owned, with the corporate revealing that a few principal shareholders had “misstated” their stake. CEO Manghat was fired after the invention of the key mortgage, and Shetty stepped down in February.

At the identical time, Finablr, which had initially hoped it could be ring-fenced from the goings-on at NMC, discovered it had troubles of its personal after discovering that undisclosed cheques price $100 million had been issued to fund third-party borrowing. It was additionally revealed that Shetty had pledged stake in each NMC Health and Finablr as collateral for loans. Perhaps essentially the most damaging of all was the revelation in March that NMC Health’s precise debt was $6.6 billion, far larger than the $2.1 billion it had initially revealed. Creditors have now moved in opposition to the highest administration, with ADCB submitting a legal case reportedly in opposition to Shetty and Prasanth Manghat, amongst others. “It’s not surprising that NMC is in administration given that the real debt is approximately 3.5x the reported amount… We hope that the administrator can save the sound operational elements of the business. It is important that those who are responsible for this massive fraud are held to account,” says Block.

The Manghat brothers are reportedly in India however this might not be verified. They haven’t made any public statements.

Efforts are underway within the emirate to salvage NMC, even because the area battles a rising coronavirus problem. Abu Dhabi wealth fund Mubadala Investment Company was weighing an funding in NMC, Bloomberg reported final month. Shetty stated in a assertion beforehand that he would return to Abu Dhabi as soon as flight restrictions have been lifted. If he as soon as left Kapu to repay a mortgage, he now has to make that journey once more, to fulfil huge obligations throughout the Arabian Sea. This time, the emirate’s regulation enforcement may be watching intently.

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